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Health      log in email password  remember me your login is case sensitive i have forgotten my password register now activate my subscription institutional login athens login close my new scientist home news in-depth articles blogs opinion tv galleries topic guides last word subscribe dating look for science jobs space tech environment health life physics&math science in society cookies & privacy home | health | news artificial anal sphincter could limit bowel incontinence 12:30 11 august 2011 by andy coghlan another milestone for custom-crafted transplants: the world's first lab-built sphincters. The breakthrough offers hope to countless people who have become incontinent through damage to their own anal sphincters. viagra pills online purchese The spare-part sphincters were made with some human cells, but have been implanted only in mice so far. Researchers made them by growing donated smooth muscle cells from human sphincters alongside gut nerve cells from mice in circular moulds. "the smooth muscle cells align themselves around the mould in a perfect, continuous circle," says khalil bitar of wake forest baptist medical center's institute for regenerative medicine in winston salem, north carolina. brand viagra 50mg online Bitar led the research team while working at the university of michigan medical school in ann arbor. "the neural cells then innervate this structure and make filamentous structures and projections around it," he says. cheapest generic viagra and viagra By testing the replacement sphincter with electric shocks and chemicals, bitar's team made sure that it contracts and relaxes as a normal sphincter does to keep gut contents in or let them out. viagra generic release date More importantly, it survived and grew when implanted beneath the skin in the upper back of mice. "it rapidly gets its own supply of blood vessels, and nerves rapidly connect with the mouse's own nervous system," says bitar. Scaling up bitar is now testing the system in larger animals. The team will also have to demonstrate that the engineered sphincters can function effectively when implanted in place of existing sphincters in the anus as a prelude to trials in humans, which they hope to begin in three to five years. cheap viagra For those clinical trials, the plan is to obtain smooth muscle and gut nerve cells from patients themselves, then grow these into replacement sphincters for implantation. discount generic viagra "we can custom-make them the size and diameter we want," he says. buy viagra without prescription Bitar says that the sphincter he has made wouldn't replace the outer anal sphincter – the one healthy people control voluntarily – but the inner one, which operates involuntarily. generic viagra without presciption usa Current treatments include reconstruction using muscle from limbs, electrical stimulation of sacral nerves, mechanical replacements and pumps – but bitar says these are fraught with complications and failures. "successful development of a bioengineere. online sales viagra

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